By - Meaning and Usage
By - Meaning and Usage

What is the meaning of 'by' in English? How to use by in a sentence? Usages of by.

The word 'by' can be used as a preposition and adverb in English. Since it is a versatile word, it can express many different meanings. Its basic uses and usage examples are given below.

Meaning and Usage

1. A1 (preposition) near or next to someone or something

We have a house by the lake.

She was sitting by the window.

A1 (preposition) used to show who or what does, writes, etc. something
(It is usually used in the passive voice.)

The company was founded by his father.

Emma is a novel written by Jane Austen.

A1 (preposition) used to show how something is done

I go to work by car.

He calls me by my last name.

Open the door by pressing the button.

A1 (preposition) not later than; before

She should have arrived by now.

I can finish the work by tomorrow.

A2 (preposition) according to

They didn’t play the game by the rules.

Don’t judge people by their appearances.

A2 (preposition) used to show the degree or amount of something

Car prices rose by 10% last year.

She broke the world record by 2 seconds.

B1 (adverb) past

Time goes by so quickly.

Just drive by and see where the road takes you.

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